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Front Matter

Johann Adam Scherzer

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John Adam Scherzer (1628-1683), one of the supreme representatives of high Lutheran Scholasticism, was born on August 1, 1628 in Eger Bohemia. His father, a Protestant lawyer, left Bohemia with his family to resettle in Franconia in 1629, largely as a result of the return of Bohemia, in 1620, to the staunchly Roman Catholic house of Hapsburg. Scherzer studied natural science and medicine at Altdorf, and later philosophy and theology, first at Jena and then at Leipzig. Daniel Stahl, a celebrated Lutheran philosopher in his day, taught Scherzer philosophy at Jena, making a lasting impression on the young man. At Jena Scherzer also studied theology under the irenic John Musaeus, and at Leipzig under the decidedly less irenic John Huelsemann, who seems to have exercised a greater influence on him. Beginning in 1654, he taught philosophy at Leipzig as an extraordinary professor (something like an assistant professor), and later Hebrew and theology. He attained the rank of ordinary professor (something like a full professor) in 1670. He held the office of dean of the theological faculty six times, of rector of the university thrice, and also served in several higher positions in the Saxon Lutheran church.


1 C.G. Jöcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, Leipzig, 1750f., Bd. 4, col. 256f.

2 J.H. Zedler, Großes vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, Leipzig und Halle, 1754ff., Bd. 34, col. 1342f.

3 Wagenmann, in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 31, S. 137f.

4 A. Tholuck, Vorgeschichte des Rationalismus, Berlin, 1853-62, Bd. I/2, S. 891f.

5 F.W. Gaß, Geschichte der protestantischen Dogmatic, 4 vol., Berlin, 1854-67, Bd. 1, S. 330

6 M. Wundt, Die deutsche Schulmetaphysik des 17 Jahrhundrets, Tübingen, 1939, S. 141f.

7 U.G. Leinsle, Reformversuche protestantischer Metaphysik im Zeitalter des Rationalismus, Augsburg, 1988, S. 20-26

8 Robert D. Preus, The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, 2 vol., St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1970-72

9 Ulrich G. Leinsle, Introduction to Scholastic Theology, translated by Michael J. Miller, Washington, D.C., The Catholic University of America Press, 1995, pp. 311-315

10 Christia Mercer, Liebniz’s Metaphysics: Its Origin and Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 36-38

11 Maria Rosa Antognazza, Leibniz: An Intellectual Biography; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

12 Preus, The Theology of Post Reformation Lutheranism, vol. 1, p. 57.

13 Preus, These include: Anti-Bellarminus sive in iv tomos controversarium Roberti Francisci Romuli Belarmini, Leipzig, 1681, 1703

14 Preus, Bibliothecae pontificae tomus ob causas in dedicatione allegatas, Leipzig, 1677

15 Preus, Collegium anti-Socinianum, Leipzig, 1672, 1684, 1702

16 Preus, Parallelismus Calvino-Nestorianus, Leipzig, 1679

17 Preus, Collegium anti-Calvinianum, Leipzig, 1703

18 Preus, Theses anti-syncretisticae, Leipzig, 1670

19 Scherzer, De jure naturae et gentium (1673)

20 Leibniz, “Opinion on the Principles of Pufendorf” (1706) in Leibniz: Political Writings, translated and edited by Patrick Riley, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972, pp. 64-75.

21 Robert Preus, The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, vol. 1

22 Leinsle, Introduction to Scholastic Theology.

23 Scherzer’s Vade mecum

24 Claude Welsh, Protestant Thought in Nineteenth Century, 2 vol., New Haven: Yale University Press, vol. 1, pp. 30-39.

25 Leinsel, Introduction to Scholastic Theology, pp. 311-312

26 Scherzer, 1682 Nucleus philosophiae quadripartitus.

27 Scherzer, like most Lutheran Scholastics, was more critical of the Reformed than of Roman Catholics.

28 Antognazza, Leibniz, pp. 24-26.

29 Antognazza, Systema theologiae, Locus XIV, # XVII.

30 Leinsle, Introduction to Scholastic Theology, pp. 314-315.

31 Scherzer, Trifolium orientale, continens commentarios R. Abarbenelis in Haggaeum, R. Sal. Jarchi in Parsh. I. Geneseos et R. Mos. Majemonidae theolgiam, cum versione latina, notis philologico-philosophicis et appendice speciminis theologiae mythicae Ebraeorum, Leipzig, 1663.

32 Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, translated by Robert C. Schultz, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966, chapter 8.

33 Ritschl, “Theology and Metaphysics” (1881), translated by Philip Heffner in Albrecht Ritschl: Three Essays, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1992, pp. 151-212.

34 Ursinus, Doctrinae Christianae compendium (1584).

35 Robert P. Sharlemann, Thomas Aquinas and John Gerhard, New Haven: Yale University press, 1964, pp. 13-22.

36 Alister E. McGrath, Luther’s Theology of the Cross, Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, pp. 161-163

37 Bernhard Lohse, Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development, translated and edited by Roy A. Harrisville, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999, pp. 196-200.

38 Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, p. 15.

39 Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, pp. 17-18.

40 Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, p. 16, ft. 7

41 Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, pp. 15-17.

42 Gerhard Ebeling, Luther: An Introduction to His Thought, translated by R.A. Wilson, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1970, chapter 5, esp. pp. 87-92.

43 Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, chapter 5.

44 Table Talk, translated by William Hazlitt, Glasgow: Fount paperbacks, 1995, # 570, p. 273.

45 Julius Köstlin, The Bondage of the Will, translated by J. I Racker and O.R. Johnston, Terrytown: Fleming H. Revell, 1957, pp. 80-81.

46 Julius Köstlin, The Theology of Luther in its Historical Development and Inner Harmony, 2 vol., translated by Charles E. Hay, Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1897

47 Julius Köstlin, repr. St. Louis: Concordia, 1986, vol. 2, pp. 274-310.

48 Julius Köstlin, The Bondage of the Will, pp. 203-207.

49 Confession Concerning Christ’s Supper, in Martin Luther’s Basic Theological Writings, edited by Timothy F. Lull, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989, pp. 357-404.

50 The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: The Case of Philip Melanchthon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

51 Philip Melanchthon, Loci communes (1555)

52 Clyde L. Manschreck, On Cristian Doctrine, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965

53 Ann Arbor: Baker, 1982, Locus IV, pp. 48-50

54 Clyde L. Manschreck, “Oration on Philosophy,” in Philip Melanchthon: Orations on Philosophy and Education, edited by Sachiko Kusukawa, translated by Christine F. Salazar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, esp. pp. 130-131.

55 Clyde L. Manschreck, “Oration on Aristotle,” in Orations on Philosophy and Education, esp. pp. 210-211.

56 Initia doctrinae physicae (1549)

57 Kusukawa, The Transformation of Natural Philosophy, pp. 144-160.

58 On Christian Doctrine, Locus II, pp. 11-38.

59 Robert Preus, The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, vol. 1, pp. 47-49.

60 Martin Chemnitz, Loci theologici, 2 vol., translated by J.A.O. Preus, St. Louis: Concordia, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 69-73.

61 Robert Preus, The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, vol. 2, pp. 115-116, 121-127.

62 Sherzer, Rule II of Title VI, ad finem.

63 Ibid, ad finem.

64 Antognazza, Leibniz, pp. 55-57.

65 Antognazza, Leibniz, pp. 47-50.

66 Scherzer’s Theses anti-syncretisticae

67 Eric Lund, Documents from the History of Lutheranism: 1517-1750, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002, pp. 237-240.

68 Goldmine, Section I, Chapter II, pp. 11-15.

69 “Preface to the General Science” (1677), and Antognazza, Leibniz, pp. 92-96.

70 “Principles of a Logical Calculus” (1679).

71 Opusclues et fragmentis inédits de Leibniz, edited by Louis Couturat, Paris: Presses Universitaires, 1903, 11/P 172

72 Donald Rutherford, Leibniz and the Rational Order of Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 76.

73 Discourse on Metaphysics, explanation of proposition 8.

74 Daniel D. Novatný, Ens rationes from Suárez to Caramuel, New York: Fordham University Press, 2013, pp. 28, 41-42, 102.

75 Rutherford, Leibniz and the Rational Order of Nature, pp. 76-77.

76 New Essays on Human Understanding, translated and edited by Peter Remnant and Jonathan Bennett, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, Book II, Chap. xxvii, 231-233.


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