Skip to content

Front Matter

Michele Paolini Paoletti

Pages 1 - 27

Imagine that one day physicists will be able to single out all the fundamental particles of the universe. In addition, they will know all their fundamental properties (i.e. all the properties had by such particles not in virtue of having other different properties), they will understand all the possible arrangements between those particles and all the possible goings-on produced by (or wholly dependent on) those arrangements. Our question is: will those physicists know everything there is to know about the universe? Will they succeed in telling us the whole history of the universe, from its beginning to its near and distant future – at least if they have adequate cognitive faculties and instruments?


1 Alexander, Samuel (1920). Space, Time, and Deity. The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow 1916-1918. New York: The Humanities Press

2 Almog, Joseph (2001). What am I? Descartes and the Mind - Body Problem. Oxford: Oxford University Press

3 Andersen, Peter Bogh, Emmeche, Claus, Finnemann, Niels Ole, Christiansen, Peder Voetmann (eds.) (2000) Downward Causation. Minds, Bodies and Matter. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press

4 Anjum, Rani Lill, Mumford, Stephen (2017). “Emergence and Demergence”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 92-109) Antony, Louise (1999). “Making Room for the Mental. Comments on J. Kim’s ‘Making Sense of Emergence’”. Philosophical Studies, 95(1-2): 37-44

5 Armstrong, David Malet (1982). What Is a Law of Nature? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

6 Barnes, Elizabeth (2012). “Emergence and Fundamentality”. Mind, 121(484): 873-901

7 Bangu, Sorin (2015). “Neither Weak Nor Strong? Emergence and Functional Reduction”. In: Falkenburg, B., Morrison, M. (eds.), Why More Is Different. Philosophical Issues in Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Systems. Heidelberg-Berlin: Springer: 154-166

8 Batterman, Robert W. (2002). The Devil in the Details. Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence. Oxford: Oxford University Press

9 Baumgartner, Michael (2009). “Interventionist Causal Exclusion and Non-reductive Physicalism”. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 23(2): 161-178

10 Baylis, Charles A. (1929). “The Philosophic Functions of Emergence”. The Philosophical Review, 38(4): 372-384

11 Bechtel, William (2008). Mental Mechanisms. Philosophical Perspectives on Cognitive Neuroscience. London-New York: Routledge

12 Beckermann, Ansgar, Flohr, Hans, Kim, Jaegwon (eds.) (1992). Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism. Berlin: de Gruyter

13 Bedau, Mark A. (1997). “Weak Emergence”. Noûs, 31(s11 – Philosophical Perspectives): 375-399

14 Bedau, Mark A. (2002). “Downward Causation and the Autonomy of Weak Emergence”. Principia, 6(1): 5-50

15 Bedau, Mark A. (2008). “Is Weak Emergence just in the Mind?”. Minds and Machines, 18(4): 443-459

16 Bedau, Mark A., Humphreys, Paul A. (eds.) (2008). Emergence. Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press

17 Bickhard, Mark H., Campbell, Donald T. (2000). “Emergence”. In: Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann, Christiansen (eds.) (2000: 326-348)

18 Bickhard, Mark H., Campbell, Richard (2011). “Physicalism, Emergence and Downward Causation”. Axiomathes, 21(1): 33-56

19 Bishop, Robert C. (2008). “Downward causation in fluid convection”. Synthese, 160(2): 229-248

20 Bishop, Robert C., Atmanspacher, Harald (2006). “Contextual emergence in the description of properties”. Foundations of Physics, 36: 1753–1777

21 Blundell, Stephen J. (2009). Superconductivity. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press

22 Boi, Luciano (2017). “The Interlacing of Upward and Downward Causation in Complex Living Systems: On Interactions, Self-Organization, Emergence and Wholeness”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 180-202)

23 Broad, Charles Dunbar (1925). The Mind and Its Place in Nature. London: Kegan, Trench, Trubner & Co.

24 Brown, William H., Poon, Thomas (2005). Introduction to Organic Chemistry. Third Edition. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley Bunge, Mario (1977). “Emergence and the Mind”. Neuroscience, 2: 501-509

25 Brown, William H., Poon, Thomas (2003). Emergence and Convergence. Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of Knowledge. Toronto: University of Toronto Press

26 Brown, William H., Poon, Thomas (2010). Matter and Mind. A Philosophical Inquiry. Heidelberg-New York: Springer

27 Campbell, Donald T. (1974). “Downward causation in hierarchically organized biological systems”. In: Ayala, F. J., Dobzhansky, T. (eds.), Studies in the philosophy of biology: Reduction and related problems. Oakland (CA): University of California Press: 179-186

28 Campbell, Keith (1990). Abstract Particulars. Oxford: Blackwell

29 Campbell, Richard (2015). The Metaphysics of Emergence. London-New York: Palgrave Macmillan

30 Chalmers, David J. (2006). “Strong and Weak Emergence”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 244-254)

31 Clark, Stewart J., Lancaster, Tom (2017). “The Use of Downward Causation in Condensed Matter Physics”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 131-145)

32 Clayton, Philip, Davies, Paul (eds.) (2006). The Re-Emergence of Emergence. The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press

33 Clayton, Philip (2006). “Conceptual Foundations of Emergence Theory”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 1-31)

34 Collins, Robin (2008). “Modern Physics and the Energy-Conservation Objection to Mind-Body Dualism”. American Philosophical Quarterly, 45(1): 31-42

35 Corradini, Antonella, O’Connor, Timothy (eds.) (2010). Emergence in Science and Philosophy. London-New York: Routledge

36 Corry, Richard (2013). “Emerging from the Causal Drain”. Philosophical Studies, 165(1): 29-47

37 Crane, Timothy, Mellor, David Hugh (1990). “There is No Question of Physicalism”. Mind, 99(394): 185-206

38 Craver, Carl F. (2007). Explaining the Brain. Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press

39 Davies, Paul (2006). “The Physics of Downward Causation”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 35-52)

40 Deacon, Terrence W. (2006). “Emergence: The Hole at the Wheel’s Hub”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 111-150)

41 Deacon, Terrence W. (2011). Incomplete Nature. How Mind Emerged from Matter. New York-London: Norton

42 Doidge, Norman (2007). The Brain that Changes Itself. New York: Viking Press

43 Dretske, Fred (1988). Explaining Behavior. Reasons in a World of Causes. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press

44 Eccles, John Carew (1980). The Human Psyche. Heidelberg-New York: Springer

45 Elder-Vass, Dave (2010). The Causal Power of Social Structures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

46 El-Hani, Charbel Niño (2002). “On the Reality of Emergents”. Principia, 6(1): 51-87

47 El-Hani, Charbel Niño, Pereira, Antonio Marcos (2000). “Higher-level descriptions: why should we preserve them?”. In: Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann, Christiansen (eds.) (2000: 118-142)

48 Ellis, George F. R. (2006). “On the Nature of Emergent Reality”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 79-107)

49 Ellis, George F. R. (2009). “Top-Down Causation and the Human Brain”. In: Murphy, N., Ellis, G. F. R., O’Connor, T. (eds.), Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will. Heidelberg-New York: Springer: 63-82

50 Ellis, George F. R. (2016). How Can Physics Underlie the Mind? Top-Down Causation in the Human Context. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Emmeche, Claus, Køppe, Simo, Stjernfelt, Frederik (2000). “Levels, Emergence, and Three Versions of Downward Causation”. In: Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann, Christiansen (eds.) (2000: 13-34)

51 Engelhardt, Jeff (2015). “Mental Causation Is Not Just Downward Causation”. Ratio. Published as Early View on July 14th, 2015

52 Eronen, Markus I., Brooks, Daniel S. (2014). “Interventionism and Supervenience: A New Problem and Provisional Solution”. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 28(2): 185-202

53 Fodor, Jerry Alan (1974). “Special Sciences (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis)”. Synthese, 28(2): 97-115 ___ (1997). “Special Sciences: Still Autonomous After All These Years”. Noûs, 31(s11 – Philosophical Perspectives): 149-163

54 Foster, John (1991). The Immaterial Self. A Defence of the Cartesian Dualist Conception of the Mind. London-New York: Routledge

55 Francescotti, Robert Michael (2007). “Emergence”. Erkenntnis, 67(1): 47-63

56 Gasparov, Igor (2015). “Emergent Dualism and the Challenge of Vagueness”. Faith and Philosophy, 32(4): 432-438

57 Gibb, Sophie Catherine (2010). “Closure Principles and the Laws of Conservation of Energy and Momentum”. Dialectica, 64(3): 363-384

58 Gibb, Sophie Catherine (2014). “Mental Causation”. Analysis, 74(2): 327-338

59 Gillett, Carl (2002). “Strong Emergence as a Defense of Non-Reductive Physicalism. A Physicalist Metaphysics for ‘Downward’ Determination”. Principia, 6(1): 89-120

60 Gillett, Carl (2016). Reduction and Emergence in Science and Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

61 Halliday, David, Resnick, Robert (2014). The Fundamentals of Physics. Tenth Revised Edition. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley

62 Hart, William D. (1988). The Engines of the Soul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

63 Hasker, William (1999). The Emergent Self. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press

64 Heil, John (2013). Philosophy of Mind. A Contemporary Introduction. Third Revised Edition. London-New York: Routledge

65 Hempel, Carl Gustav (1969). “Reduction: Ontological and Linguistic Facets”. In: Morgenbesser, S., Suppes, P., White, M. (eds.), Philosophy, Science and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest Nagel. New York: St. Martin’s Press: 179-199

66 Hempel, Carl Gustav, Oppenheim, Paul (1948). “Studies in the Logic of Explanation”. Philosophy of Science, 15(2): 135-175

67 Hendry, Robin Findlay (2010). “Emergence vs. Reduction in Chemistry”. In: MacDonald, MacDonald (eds.) (2010: 205-221) ___ (2017). “Prospects for Strong Emergence in Chemistry”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 146-163

68 Horgan, Terence (1993). “From Supervenience to Superdupervenience: Meeting the Demands of a Material World”. Mind, 102(408): 555-586

69 Howard, Don (2007). “Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle Physics and Condensed Matter Debate”. In: Murphy, Stoeger (eds.) (2007: 141-157)

70 Hulswit, Menno (2006). “How Causal is Downward Causation?”. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 36(2): 261-287

71 Humphreys, Paul (1997a). “Emergence, Not Supervenience”. Philosophy of Science, 64(supplement4): 373-345

72 Humphreys, Paul (1997b). “How Properties Emerge”. Philosophy of Science, 64(1): 1-17

73 Humphreys, Paul (2016). Emergence. A Philosophical Account. Oxford: Oxford University Press

74 Jaeger, Luc, Calkins, Erin R. (2012). “Downward causation by information control in micro-organisms”. Interface Focus, 2(1): 26-41

75 Jaworski, William (2011). Philosophy of Mind. A Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Wiley-Blackwell

76 Jaworski, William (2014). “Hylomorphism and the Metaphysics of Structure”. Res Philosophica, 91: 179-201

77 Jaworski, William (2016a). Structure and the Metaphysics of Mind. How Hylomorphism solves the Mind-Body Problem. Oxford: Oxford University Press

78 Jaworski, William (2016b). “Hylomorphism: Emergent Properties without Emergentism”. In: Garcia-Valdecasas, M., Barrett, N. (eds.), Biology and Subjectivity: Philosophical Contributions to Non-Reductive Neuroscience. Heidelberg-New York: Springer: 41-61

79 Joos, Erich (2006). “The Emergence of Classicality from Quantum Theory”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 53-78)

80 Juarrero, Alicia (1999). Dynamics in Action. Intentional Behavior as a Complex System. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press

81 Kim, Jaegwon (1976). “Events as Property-Exemplifications”. In: Myles, B., Walton, D. (eds.), Action Theory. Proceedings of the Winnipeg Conference on Human Action, Held at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 9–11 May 1975. Heidelberg-New York: Springer: 159-177

82 Kim, Jaegwon (1993). Supervenience and Mind: Selected Philosophical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

83 Kim, Jaegwon (1998). Mind in a Physical World. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press

84 Kim, Jaegwon (1999). “Making Sense of Emergence”. Philosophical Studies, 95(1-2): 3-36

85 Kim, Jaegwon (2000). “Making Sense of Downward Causation”. In: Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann, Christiansen (eds.) (2000: 305-321).

86 Kim, Jaegwon (2005). Physicalism, or Something Near Enough. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press

87 Kim, Jaegwon (2006). “Being Realistic about Emergence”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 189-202)

88 Kistler, Maximilian (2009). “Mechanisms and Downward Causation”. Philosophical Psychology, 22(5): 595-609

89 Kistler, Maximilian (2016). L’Esprit matériel: réduction et émergence. Paris: Ithaque

90 Kistler, Maximilian (2017). “Higher-Level, Downward and Specific Causation”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 54-75)

91 Klee, Robert L. (1984). “Micro-Determinism and Concepts of Emergence”. Philosophy of Science, 51(1): 44-63

92 Klir, George Jiri (2001). Facets of Systems Science. Second Revised Edition. Heidelberg-New York: Springer

93 Koffka, Kurt (1936). Principles of Gestalt Psychology. London: Kegan, Trench, Trubner & Co.

94 Koslicki, Katherine (2008). The Structure of Objects. Oxford: Oxford University Press

95 Ladyman, James, Ross, Don (2007). Every Thing Must Go. Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford: Oxford University Press Lancaster, Tom, Blundell, Stephen J. (2014). Quantum Field Theory for the Gifted Amateur. Oxford: Oxford University Press

96 Laughlin, Robert B. (2005). A Different Universe. Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down. New York: Basic Books Lewes, George Henry (1875). Problems of Life and Mind. Vol. 2. London: Kegan, Trench, Trubner & Co.

97 Lloyd Morgan, Conwy (1927). Emergent Evolution. The Gifford Lectures Delivered in the University of St. Andrew’s in the Year 1922. London: Williams and Norgate

98 Lowe, E. Jonathan (2000). “Causal Closure Principles and Emergentism”. Philosophy, 75(4): 571-585

99 Lowe, E. Jonathan (2006). The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press

100 Lowe, E. Jonathan (2008). Personal Agency. The Metaphysics of Mind and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press

101 Luisi, Pier Luigi (2002). “Emergence in Chemistry: Chemistry as the Embodiment of Emergence”. Foundations of Chemistry, 4: 183-200

102 Luisi, Pier Luigi (2006). The Emergence of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

103 MacBride, Fraser (2016). “Relations”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

104 MacDonald, Cynthia, MacDonald, Graham (eds.) (2010). Emergence in Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press

105 Mankiw, N. Gregory (2011). Principles of Economy. Fifth Edition. Mason (OH): South-Western Cengage Learning

106 Marmodoro, Anna (2017). “Power Mereology: Structural Powers versus Substantial Powers”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 110-127)

107 Maturana, Humberto, Varela, Francisco (1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition. The Realisation of the Living. Dordrecht: Reidel

108 Maurin, Anna-Sofia (2013). “Tropes”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

109 McGivern, Patrick, Rueger, Alexander (2010). “Emergence in Physics”. In: Corradini, O’Connor (eds.) (2010: 213-232)

110 McLaughlin, Brian P. (1992). “The Rise and Fall of British Emergentism”. In: Beckermann, Flohr, Kim (eds.) (1992: 49-93)

111 McLaughlin, Brian P., Bennett, Karen (2012). “Supervenience”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

112 Meehl, Paul E., Sellars, Wilfrid (1956). “The Concept of Emergence”. In: Feigl, H., Scriven, M. (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume I: The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota Press: 239-252

113 Menzies, Peter, List, Christian (2009). “Nonreductive Physicalism and the Limits of the Exclusion Principle”. Journal of Philosophy, 106(9): 475-502

114 Menzies, Peter, List, Christian (2010). “The Causal Autonomy of the Special Sciences”. In: MacDonald, MacDonald (eds.) (2010: 108-128)

115 Meyering, Theo C. (2000). “Physicalism and downward causation in psychology and the special sciences”. Inquiry, 43(2): 181-202

116 Mill, John Stuart (1843). System of Logic. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer

117 Montero, Barbara Gail (2006). “What Does the Conservation of Energy Have to Do With Physicalism?”. Dialectica, 60(4): 383-364

118 Montero, Barbara Gail (2009). “What is the Physical?”. In: Beckermann, A., McLaughlin, B., Walter, S. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 173-186 Moreno, Alvaro, Umerez, Jon (2000). “Downward Causation at the Core of Living Organization”. In: Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann, Christiansen (eds.) (2000: 99-117)

119 Morganti, Matteo (2009). “Tropes and Physics”. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 78: 185-205

120 Morowitz, Harold J. (2002). The Emergence of Everything. Oxford: Oxford University Press

121 Mossio, Matteo, Bich, Leonardo, Moreno, Alvaro (2013). “Emergence, Closure and Inter-Level Causation in Biological Systems”. Erkenntnis, 78(2): 153-178

122 Murphy, Nancey, Brown, Warren S. (2007). Did My Neurons Make Me Do It? Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will. Oxford: Oxford University Press

123 Murphy, Nancey, Stoeger, William R. (eds.) (2007). Evolution and Emergence. Systems, Organisms, Persons. Oxford: Oxford University Press

124 Nagel, Ernest (1961). The Structure of Science. Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace and World

125 Nelson, Alvin F. (1969). “Emergentism Reconsidered and an Alternative”. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 7(2): 187-192 Noble, Denis (2006). The Music of Life. Biology beyond the Genome. Oxford: Oxford University Press

126 O’Connor, Timothy (1994). “Emergent Properties”. American Philosophical Quarterly, 31(2): 91-104

127 O’Connor, Timothy, Jacobs, Jonathan D. (2003). “Emergent Individuals”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 53(213): 540-555

128 O’Connor, Timothy, Wong, Hong Yu (2006). “The Metaphysics of Emergence”. Noûs, 39(4): 658-678

129 Okasha, Samir (2012). “Emergence, hierarchy and top-down causation in evolutionary biology”. Interface Focus, 2(1): 49-54 Orilia, Francesco, Paolini Paoletti, Michele (2017). “Three Grades of Downward Causation”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds) (2017: 26-41)

130 Orilia, Francesco, Swoyer, Chris (2011). “Properties”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

131 Paolini Paoletti, Michele (2016a). “How Powers Emerge From Relations”. Axiomathes, 26(2): 187-204

132 Paolini Paoletti, Michele (2016b). “Non-Symmetrical Relations, O-Roles and Modes”. Acta Analytica, 31(4): 373-395

133 Paolini Paoletti, Michele (2016c). “How I (freely) Raised My Arm. Downward, Structural, Substance Causation”. Mind and Matter, 14(2): 203-228

134 Paolini Paoletti, Michele (2017). “Formulating Emergence”. Ratio. Published as OnlineFirst on February, 27th, 2017

135 Paolini Paoletti, Michele, Orilia, Francesco (2017). “Downward Causation: An Opinionated Introduction”. In: Paolini Paoletti, Orilia (eds.) (2017: 1-21)

136 Paolini Paoletti, Michele, Orilia, Francesco (eds.) (2017).

137 Paolini Paoletti, Michele, Orilia, Francesco (eds.) Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation. New York: Routledge

138 Pap, Arthur (1952). “The Concept of Absolute Emergence”. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 8(2): 302-311

139 Papineau, David (2000). “The Rise of Physicalism”. In: Stone, M. W. F., Wolff, J. (eds.), The Proper Ambition of Science. London-New York: Routledge: 174-208

140 Pepper, Stephen C. (1926). “Emergence”. Journal of Philosophy, 23(9): 241-245

141 Plantinga, Alvin (1978). The Nature of Necessity. Oxford: Clarendon

142 Polanyi, Michael (1969). Knowing and Being. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press

143 Polkinghorne, John (2002). Quantum Theory. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press

144 Quine, Willard van Orman (1948). “On What There Is”. Review of Metaphysics, 2(5): 21-36

145 Purves, Dale, et al. (eds.) (2008). Neuroscience. Fourth Edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer

146 Raatikainen, Panu (2010). “Causation, Exclusion and the Special Sciences”. Erkenntnis, 73(3): 349-363

147 Robb, David (1997). “The Properties of Mental Causation”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 47(187): 178-194

148 Robinson, Howard (2011). “Dualism”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

149 Robinson, Howard (2014). “Substance”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

150 Robinson, William S. (2005). “Zooming in on Downward Causation”. Biology and Philosophy, 20(1): 117-136

151 Rothschild, Lynn J. (2006). “The Role of Emergence in Biology”. In: Clayton, Davies (eds.) (2006: 151-166)

152 Rueger, Alexander (2000a). “Physical Emergence, Diachronic and Synchronic”. Synthese, 124(3): 297-332

153 Rueger, Alexander (2000b). “Robust Supervenience and Emergence”. Philosophy of Science, 67(3): 466-489

154 Sartenaer, Olivier (2015). “Synchronic Vs. Diachronic Emergence: A Reappraisal”. European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 5(1): 31-54

155 Sawyer, R. Keith (2005). Social Emergence. Societies as Complex Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

156 Schwartz, Jeffrey M., Begley, Sharon (2009). The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: ReganBooks

157 Scott, Alwyn C. (1995). Stairway to the Mind. New York: Springer

158 Scott, Alwyn C. (2007). The Nonlinear Universe. Chaos, Emergence, Life. Heidelberg-New York: Springer

159 Searle, John Rogers (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press

160 Seibt, Johanna (1997). “Existence in Time: From Substance to Process”. In: Faye, J., Scheffler, U., Urs, U. (eds.), Perspectives on Time. Dordrecht: Kluwer: 143-182

161 Seibt, Johanna (2009). “Forms of emergent interaction in General Process Theory”. Synthese, 166(3): 479-512

162 Shapiro, Larry (2010). “Lessons from Causal Exclusion”. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 81(3): 594-604 Shoemaker, Sydney (2007). Physical Realisation. Oxford: Oxford University Press

163 Shrader, Warren (2010). “Shoemaker on emergence”. Philosophical Studies, 150(2): 285-300

164 Silberstein, Michael, McGeever, John (1999). “The Search for Ontological Emergence”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 49(195): 182-200

165 Solomon, Eldra P., Berg, Linda R., Martin, Diana W. (2011). Biology. Ninth Edition. Belmont (CA): Brooks/Cole

166 Spencer-Smith, Richard (1995). “Reductionism and Emergent Properties”. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 95: 113-129

167 Sperry, Roger W. (1969). “A Modified Concept of Consciousness”. Psychological Review, 76(6): 532-536

168 Stapp, Henry P. (2009). Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics. Third Edition. Heidelberg-New York: Springer

169 Stephan, Achim (2002). “Emergence, Irreducibility, and Downward Causation”. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 65: 77-93

170 Strawson, Galen (2008). Real Materialism and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press

171 Sturgeon, Scott (2003). Matters of Mind. Consciousness, reason, and nature. London-New York: Routledge

172 Swinburne, Richard (1997). The Evolution of the Soul. Second Revised Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press

173 Symons, John (2002). “Emergence and Reflexive Downward Causation”. Principia, 6(1): 183-202

174 Taliaferro, Charles (1996). Consciousness and the Mind of God. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

175 Taylor, Elanor (2015a). “An Explication of Emergence”. Philosophical Studies, 172(3): 653-669

176 Taylor, Elanor (2015b). “Collapsing Emergence”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 65(261): 732-753

177 Tononi, Giulio (2004). “An Information Integration Theory of Consciousness”. BMC Neuroscience, 5(1): 42

178 Tononi, Giulio (2012a). “Integrated information theory of consciousness: an updated account”. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 150(2-3): 290-326

179 Tononi, Giulio (2012b). Phi. A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. New York: Pantheon Books

180 Tugby, Matthew (2012). “The Metaphysics of Pan-Disposionalism”. In: Bird, A., Ellis, B., Sankey, H. (eds.), Properties, Powers and Structures. Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism. New York: Taylor and Francis: 165-179

181 Tye, Michael (2015). “Qualia”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

182 van Cleve, James (1990). “Mind-Dust or Magic? Panpsychism Versus Emergence”. Philosophical Perspectives, 4: 215-226

183 van Gulick, Robert (1993). “Who’s in Charge Here? And Who’s Doing All the Work?”. In: Heil, J., Mele, A. (eds.), Mental Causation. Oxford: Clarendon: 233-256

184 van Gulick, Robert (2001). “Reduction, Emergence and Other Recent Options on the Mind/Body Problem. A Philosophic Overview”. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(9-10): 1-34

185 van Gulick, Robert (2014). “Consciousness”. In: Zalta, E. N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

186 Vicente, Agustín (2013). “Where to Look for Emergent Properties”. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 27(2): 137-156

187 von Bertalanffy, Ludwig (1968). General System Theory. Foundations, Development, Applications. New York: Braziller Wayne, Andrew, Arciszewski, Michal (2009). “Emergence in Physics”. Philosophy Compass, 4/5: 846-858

188 Wilson, Jessica M. (1999). “How Superduper Does a Physicalist Supervenience Need to Be?”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 49(194): 33-52

189 Wilson, Jessica M. (2002). “Causal Powers, Forces, and Superdupervenience”. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 63: 53-78

190 Wilson, Jessica M. (2010). “Non-Reductive Physicalism and Degrees of Freedom”. British Journal for Philosophy of Science, 61(2): 279-311

191 Wilson, Jessica M. (2013). “Nonlinearity and metaphysical emergence”. In: Mumford, S., Tugby, M. (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 201-229

192 Wimsatt, William C. (1976). “Reductionism, Levels of Organization and the Mind-Body Problem”. In: Globus, G. G., Dewan, E. M. (eds.), Consciousness and the Brain. A Scientific and Philosophical Inquiry. New York-London: Plenum Press: 205-267

193 Wimsatt, William C. (1986). “Forms of Aggregativity”. In: Donagan, A., Perovich, Jr., A. N., Wedin, M. V. (eds.), Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Heidelberg-New York: Springer: 259-291

194 Wimsatt, William C. (2000). “Emergence as Non-Aggregativity and the Biases of Reductionism”. Foundations of Science, 5: 269-297

195 Wong, Hong Yu (2006). “Emergents from Fusion”. Philosophy of Science, 73(3): 345-367

196 Wong, Hong Yu (2010). “The Secret Lives of Emergents”. In: Corradini, O’Connor (eds.) (2010: 7-24)

197 Woodward, James (2003). Making Things Happen. A Theory of Causal Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press

198 Woodward, James (2008). “Mental Causation and Neural Mechanisms”. In: Hohwy, J., Kallestrup, J. (eds.), Being Reduced. New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 218-262

199 Woodward, James (2015). “Interventionism and Causal Exclusion”. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 91(2): 303-347

200 Yablo, Stephen (1992). “Mental Causation”. The Philosophical Review, 101(2): 245-280


Export Citation